In a large population-based family study report published in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, researchers from the National Kidney Foundation revealed that the family history of kidney disease is strongly associated with increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease in future.
Chronic #kidneydisease is expected to become the fifth leading cause of death by 2040, yet many remain undiagnosed. We're committed to investigating how to help to improve outcomes for those impacted by CKD. pic.twitter.com/AuayOo2d15
— AstraZeneca (@AstraZeneca) January 12, 2021
According to the National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 23.1% of all adults in the United States 60 years and older have diabetes mellitus (DM), and between 1996 and 2007, the number of adults treated for diabetes in the United States has doubled (9.1 to 19 million). DM is the single largest contributor to the growing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD); 35% of adults who have diabetes also have CKD.
When associated with kidney disease, diabetes poses a triple threat. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a global public health problem with prevalence ranging from 3.3% to 17.3% in adult European populations.
Chronic kidney disease is defined by reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and/or increased albuminuria and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and progression to end stage kidney disease (ESKD).
However, the creatinine clearance is calculated from patients’ urine, thereby determining the creatinine concentration measured in a 24-hour urine collection and a concomitant serum creatinine concentration. It is considered a more practical approach to estimate GFR from the patients’ serum creatinine concentration.
Previously, the evidence reported that the chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a genetic characteristic that is it can be inherited and run from generation to generations. In the study, research team aimed to quantitatively determine the familial aggregation of CKD in the general population and accurately assess the extent to which kidney traits can be explained by genetic and environmental factors.
The required data for analysis was collected from the Lifelines Cohort Study from a sample of the general population of northern Netherlands predominantly composed of individuals of European ancestry.
In the study, researchers investigated the familial aggregation of CKD. They compared the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in individuals who had an affected first-degree relative to that in the general population. It was found that those individuals who had first-degree relative were found to have a three-fold higher risk of CKD relative to that in the general population.
The comparative analysis was independent of BMI, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and smoking status. Moreover, it was observed that 1.56-fold higher risk of CDK was observed in participants with an affected spouse, implicating that shared environmental factors and/or assortative mating may have played the role.
“Heritability of kidney related markers and serum electrolytes ranged between 20 and 50%. These results indicate an important role for genetic factors in modulating susceptibility to kidney disease in the general population,” concludes the study.
In this large population-based family study, first-degree relatives are seriously are at increased risk of CKD. The study observed moderate to high heritability of kidney traits and related biomarkers. These results indicate an important role of genetic factors in CKD risk.