Preliminary data suggests a potential link between ABO blood type and susceptibility to contract the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.
Two new studies published in Blood Advances, reported that people with the blood type O are presumed to be less susceptible to contract the infection compared to individuals with A and AB blood type who are believed to be at greater risk of severe clinical outcomes. It was further stated that people with A and AB blood group are at increased risk of organ dysfunction and associated complications, if they do get sick from the virus.
A similar study published back in June had similar results.
— Flor (@flor_enthus) October 15, 2020
Previously, data indicates possible correlation between the ABO blood type and the associated risk of infection. Previous reports implicate that the ABO blood groups are increasingly known to influence susceptibility to certain viruses, including SARS-CoV-17 coronavirus and norovirus.
Moreover, it was reported previously that the individuals with the A, B, and AB blood type are at the increased risk of for blood clot disorder thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases, which are considered important comorbidities that occur concurrently in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Therefore, accurate identification of the risk factor for contracting and developing serious illness following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of paramount interest.
In the Danish retrospective study, all the individuals who tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 27 February 2020 and 30 July 2020, with a known ABO and RhD blood group, were documented to determine the influence of common blood groups on virus susceptibility.
Study recruited over 473 654 individuals who tested for SARS-CoV-2 using real-time polymerase chain reaction including 29% males. Results showed up to 7422 positives and nearly 466 232 negatives and 2 204 742 individuals were not tested that accounts for the approximate 38% of the total Danish population. It was found that 38.41% of the patients had blood group type O compared with the 41.70% in the control group with the relative risk of 0.87 for acquiring COVID-19.
Similarly, in the second study of 398 671 individuals, it was found that the COVID-19 patients with blood group A or AB are at increased risk for requiring mechanical ventilation and are more susceptible to exhibit disease severity relative to individuals with the blood group type O or B.
“It is very important to consider the proper control group because blood type prevalence may vary considerably in different ethnic groups and different countries,” said study author Torben Barington, MD, of Odense University Hospital and the University of Southern Denmark.